Gebruiker:Leonidas1206/Kladblok/Slag bij Crécy: verschil tussen versies

 
===Cavaleriecharges===
Karel II van Alençon gaf toen het bevel tot een cavaleriecharge. Deze werd echter slordig uitgevoerd doordat hiertoe zo plotseling het bevel gegeven was, doordat de ruiters zich een weg moesten banen tussen de vluchtende Italianen, door de modderige bodem, doordat de charge heuvelopwaarts ging, en door de putten die gegraven waren door de Engelsen. De aanval werd nog verder belemmerd door de Engelse boogschutters, die veel verliezen onder de Fransen veroorzaakten. Het is waarschijnlijk dat de boogschutters hun pijlen bewaarden totdat ze een behoorlijke kans hadden om de Franse harnassen te doorboren, wat dus zou betekenen dat ze pas geschoten zouden hebben op slechts 80 m afstand. Hoewel de Franse ridders goed beschermd waren, hadden hun paarden helemaal geen pantsers en veel van hen werden gedood of verwond. Buiten gevecht gestelde paarden vielen, waardoor ze hun berijders van zich af wierpen of onder zich vastklemden. Hierdoor moesten de volgende ridders uit elkaar gaan om hen te ontwijken, waardoor de aanval nog verder gedesorganiseerd werd. Ook vluchtten de panikerende gewonde paarden overal over de helling van de heuvel. Toen de dichte opstelling van de Engelse ridders en de soldaten met speren de Franse charge moest opvangen, had die al het grootste deel van zijn kracht verloren.
Alençon's battle then launched a [[Charge (warfare)|cavalry charge]]. This was disordered by its impromptu nature, by having to force its way through the fleeing Italians, by the muddy ground, by having to charge uphill, and by the pits dug by the English.{{sfn|Bennett|1994|p=7}} The attack was further broken up by the heavy and effective shooting from the English archers, which caused many casualties.{{sfn|Rogers|1998|p=240}} It is likely the archers preserved their ammunition until they had a reasonable chance of penetrating the French armour, which would be a range of about {{convert|80|m|ft}}.{{sfn|Ayton|Preston|2007|p=371}} The armoured French riders had some protection, but their horses were completely unarmoured and were killed or wounded in large numbers.{{sfn|Livingstone|Witzel|2004|p=290}} Disabled horses fell, spilling or trapping their riders and causing following ranks to swerve to avoid them and fall into even further disorder.{{sfn|Ayton|Preston|2007|p=373}} Wounded horses fled across the hillside in panic.{{sfn|Sumption|1990|pp=528–529}} By the time the tight formation of English men-at-arms and spearmen received the French charge it had lost much of its impetus.{{sfn|DeVries|1998|pp=170–171}}
[[File:Battle of Crécy - Grandes Chroniques de France (c.1415), f.152v - BL Cotton MS Nero E II.jpg|thumb|upright|left|alt=A colourful and stylised picture of late-Medieval cavalry battle|{{center|Battle of Crécy, as envisaged 80 years after the battle}}]]
Een schrijver uit die tijd omschreef de man-tegen-mangevechten die volgden als "moorddadig, zonder medelijden, wreed, en zeer vreselijk". Ridders die uitgleden of die van hun gewonde paarden werden gegooid, werden vertrappeld, verpletterd door vallende paarden en lichamen en stikten in de modder. Na de slag werden veel Franse lijken gevonden zonder verwondingen. De graaf van Alençon was onder deze. De Franse aanval was teruggeslagen. De Engelse infanterie gingen vooruit om de Franse gewonden de genadestoot te geven, de lijken te plunderen en om pijlen terug te halen. Sommige bronnen zeggen dat Eduard in tegenstelling tot wat gebruikelijk was, het bevel had gegeven geen gevangenen te nemen; aangezien hij numeriek in de minderheid was, wilde hij geen soldaten verliezen doordat ze gevangenen moesten bewaken. Hoe dan ook, er staat nergens vermelding van het feit dat er gevangenen genomen werden tot de volgende dag, na de veldslag.
A contemporary described the [[hand-to-hand combat]] which ensued as "murderous, without pity, cruel, and very horrible".{{sfn|DeVries|1998|p=171}} Men-at-arms who lost their footing, or who were thrown from wounded horses, were trampled underfoot, crushed by falling horses and bodies and suffocated in the mud. After the battle, many French bodies were recovered with no marks on them. Alençon was among those killed.{{sfn|Livingstone|Witzel|2004|p=292}}{{sfn|DeVries|2015|p=313}}{{sfn|Prestwich|2007b|p=150}} The French attack was beaten off. English infantry moved forward to knife the French wounded, loot the bodies and recover arrows.{{sfn|Livingstone|Witzel|2004|p=289}}{{sfn|Ayton|2007c|p=192}} Some sources say Edward had given orders that, contrary to custom,{{sfn|King|2002|pp=269–270}} no prisoners be taken; outnumbered as he was he did not want to lose fighting men to escorting and guarding captives. In any event, there is no record of any prisoners being taken until the next day, after the battle.{{sfn|King|2017|pp=109–110}}{{sfn|DeVries|1998|p=163}}
 
Fresh forces of French cavalry moved into position at the foot of the hill and repeated Alençon's charge. They had the same problems as Alençon's force, with the added disadvantage that the ground they were advancing over was littered with dead and wounded horses and men.{{sfn|Rogers|1998|p=240}}{{sfn|Prestwich|2007b|p=150}} Ayton and Preston write of "long mounds of fallen warhorses and men ... add[ing] significantly to the difficulties facing fresh formations ... as they sought to approach the English position".{{sfn|Ayton|Preston|2007|p=373}} Nevertheless, they charged home, albeit in such a disordered state that they were again unable to break into the English formation. A prolonged mêlée resulted, with a report that at one point the Prince of Wales was beaten to his knees. One account has the Prince's [[standard-bearer]] standing on his [[standard (flag)|banner]] to prevent its capture. A modern historian has described the fighting as "horrific carnage".{{sfn|Prestwich|2007b|p=157}} Edward sent forward a detachment from his reserve battle to rescue the situation.{{sfn|Ayton|Preston|2007|pp=368, 376}} The French were again repulsed. They came again. The English ranks were thinned, but those in the rear stepped forward to fill the gaps.{{sfn|DeVries|1998|p=171}}{{sfn|Sumption|1990|p=529}}
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