Cabinda (provincie): verschil tussen versies

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== History ==
Portuguese explorers, missionaries and traders arrived at the mouth of the [[Congo River|Congo (or Nzere) river]] in the mid-[[15th century]], making contact with the powerful King of the Congo ([[Manikongo]]). The Manikongo controlled much of the region through affiliation with smaller kingdoms, such as the Kingdoms of Ngoyo, Loango and Cacongo in present-day Cabinda.
 
Over the years, the Portuguese, Dutch, and English established trading posts, logging camps and small [[palm oil]] processing factories in Cabinda. Trade continued and the European presence grew, resulting in conflicts between the rival colonial powers.
 
Through the [[Treaty of Simulambuco]] in [[1885]] between the kings of Portugal and Cabinda's princes, a Portuguese [[protectorate]] was decreed, reserving rights to the local princes and independent of Angola. Cabinda once had the [[Congo River]] as the only natural boundary with Angola, but in [[1885]], the [[Conference of Berlin]] extended the Congo Free State's territory along the [[Congo River]] to the river's mouth at the sea.
 
In [[1975]], the [[Treaty of Alvor]] integrated Cabinda into Angola, but this treaty was considered contentious and was rejected by all Angolan parties.
 
== Liberation movement ==
A liberation movement, the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda ([[Frente para a Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda]], FLEC), has been active since Angola's independence from [[Portugal]] in [[1975]].
 
FLEC controlled most of the region in 1975, and constituted a [[provisional government]] led by Henriques Tiago. The independence of Cabinda from Portugal was proclaimed on [[August 1]], [[1975]]. Luiz Branque Franque was elected president. After the declaration of Angolan independence in November 1975, Cabinda was invaded by forces of the [[Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola]] (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola, MPLA), with mercenaries from [[Cuba]]. The MPLA overthrew the provisional FLEC government, and re-incorporated Cabinda into Angola. FLEC has continued its political and military struggle for Cabindan independence since the invasion, with little success.
 
In April [[1997]], Cabinda joined the [[Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization]], a [[democratic]] and [[international organization]] whose members are [[indigenous peoples]], [[List of disputed or occupied territories|occupied nations]], [[minority|minorities]] and [[independence|independent]] [[state]]s or territories.
* [http://www.unpo.org/article.php?id=2744 UNPO-resolutie over de enclave Cabinda], [[26 juni]] [[2005]]
 
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